SPOJKY (CONJUNCTIONS)

 

 

Exercises PDF version Menu Grammar

 

 

Jsou to slova, která spojují jednotlivé větné členy nebo věty.

 

 

SOUŘADÍCÍ SPOJKY (COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)

 

- spojují slova, skupiny slov nebo věty, které jsou na sobě navzájem nezávislé

- stojí mezi slovy nebo větami, které spojují

- některé tyto spojky stojí na začátku věty

 

 

SLUČOVACÍ

and

a

John and Mary are here. Come and have a drink.

as well as

i, také, jakož i

I as well as you know that.

both … and

i … i, jak-tak

It is both good and cheap.

ODPOROVACÍ

but

ale

He is ill but he doesn’t complain.

although, though

ačkoliv, přestože

I drank the beer although I didn’t want it.

yet

avšak, ale, no, stejně

These books are cheap yet good.

still

avšak, přece, no přece

Still, you ought to help them.

however

ale, přece, avšak

Later, however, she made up her mind to go.

nevertheless

stejně, a přece,

i tak

It was dark. Nevertheless, she found the way.

VYLUČOVACÍ

or

nebo

Are you sad or happy? You can go right or left.

either … or

buď … anebo

Either tell the truth or say nothing.

neither … nor

ani … ani

It is neither green nor blue.

PŘÍČINNÉ

nor

ani

He won’t help her. Nor will I.

for

protože

You have to take at least three books a year, for that is how the club works.

DŮSLEDKOVÉ

so, thus

tak, nuže, proto

I have just ordered three books, so I’ll be easy.

therefore

proto, a tak, tedy

There has been heavy rain. The ground is therefore very damp.

 


 

PODŘADÍCÍ SPOJKY (SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)

 

Spojují vedlejší a hlavní větu. Stojí na začátku vedlejší věty.

 

 

OBSAHOVÉ

that

že

I know that he is very clever.

whether

jestli, zda, zdali

Ask him whether it is time to go.

ČASOVÉ

when

když, až

When I come back, I will go to church.

till, until

dokud

Let’s wait till the rain stops.

after

(potom) když; poté, co ...

It always rains after I’ve cleaned the windows.

before

než; dříve, než …

Have some tea before you go.

since

od té doby, co …

I haven’t seen her since she left.

as soon as

jen co, jakmile

I’ll come as soon as I finish working.

no sooner … than

sotvaže

Eve had no sooner sat down than the bell rang.

while

zatímco, dokud

Please be quiet while I am talking to you.

as

když

I saw him as he was getting off the bus.

as long as

pokud, dokud

You can stay as long as you like.

MÍSTNÍ

where

kde, kam

There are many lakes where I live.

wherever

kdekoli, kamkoli

Wherever you go, you’ll find him.

PŘÍPUSTKOVÉ

although, though

ačkoli, i když, třebas i

Though he is small, he is very strong.

in spite of the fact that

přestože, ačkoliv

In spite of the fact that he is young, he is very rich.

PŘÍČINNÉ

as

protože, jelikož

As you are tired, you’d better take a rest.

because

protože, poněvadž

I drink because I am thirsty.

since

protože, jelikož

Since we have a lot of work, it’s better to start early.

PODMÍNKOVÉ

if

jestliže, kdyby, zdali, -li

If she comes, I will tell you.

unless

když ne, kdyby ne

I will leave at four unless they phone me.

provided that

pod podmínkou, že …

They will lend it to me provided that I return it on time.

supposing that

za předpokladu, že …

Supposing white were black you would be right.

ÚČELOVÉ

that, in order to

aby

We’ll mail all the information in order to save some time.

so that

aby

I wrote it to him so that he could know it.

ZPŮSOBOVÉ

as

jak, tak jako

She doesn’t speak as other teachers do.

as if (as though)

jako by, jako kdyby

She behaved as if nothing had happened.

so … that

tak, že

It was so heavy that he could not move it.

such … that

takový, že

It was such a boring speech that I fell asleep.

SROVNÁVACÍ

as … as

tak … jako

He likes me as much as I like him.

not as (not so) … as

ne tak … jako

It was not so far as we expected.

than

než, jako

John speaks French more fluently than Peter does.

 

   

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