FOOD, GASTRONOMY

 

 

Gastronomy Picture dictionary Exercises, revision

Czech cuisine Phrases Projects

British cuisine ESC - food - UK PDF version

Cuisine of the USA ESC - food - USA Menu Topics

 

 

GASTRONOMY

 

Gastronomy is a term which means the art of good eating. Gastronomy includes the preparation of meals, dining, eating customs and everything related to food and drinks. Gastronomy is the topic of this essay because eating and drinking are some of the most important things that influence our health.

The first meal of the day is breakfast. Some say that a rich breakfast is the best way to start the day; others prefer their breakfast to be healthy, light, and easy to digest. The majority of people eat a breakfast that consists of bread, bread rolls, buns, and bagels, with butter, salami, ham, honey, cheese or jam. Instead of bread we can have something sweet - cakes (or Christmas cake), doughnuts or gingerbread. As an alternative to the standard breakfast, people may also cook scrambled eggs, omelettes, polenta or porridge. Those who prefer a healthy breakfast might have yoghurt with fresh fruit, muesli with milk, raisins, chocolate, stewed fruit, walnuts, hazelnuts etc. Many people accompany their meal with tea, cocoa, warm or hot milk, coffee, hot chocolate or a glass of juice.

10:00 a.m. is the usual time for a mid-morning snack. At this time, it is good to eat something light and healthy like fruit or vegetables.

At midday, it is lunchtime, usually the time for the main meal in our country. Most people go to a school, office or factory canteen but some prefer going to a restaurant or having a fast lunch in a buffet or a snack bar or buying something at street stalls.  Often lunch consists of soup, a main course, something to drink and salad or a dessert.

Soups are either vegetable soups (tomato, potato, pea, bean, carrot, parsley, celery, mushrooms) or meat teas (beef tea, tripe, chicken, hen or goulash soup etc.). Some people cook fruit soups (e.g. strawberry soup).

The main course is usually cooked meat, fish, or poultry with side dishes of potatoes or rice, Czech dumplings, pasta or bread, and maybe a vegetable salad. The main dish can be also sweet - e.g. strawberry or plum dumplings, doughnuts etc. We distinguish the following types of meat: beef, pork, mutton, lamb, veal and we can prepare it in various ways - roast it, grill it, boil it, bake it or stew it, we can also mince or smoke some kinds of meat. Poultry is things like chicken, goose, hen, turkey and duck. Lots of people in our country eat rabbits. The main fish cooked in our country are carp and trout.

While cooking we may add various spices so that the meal will have a unique flavour - e. g. garlic, sage, rosemary, thyme, marjoram, curry, pepper, ginger, red pepper, mace, cinnamon, clove, cumin, bay leaf, allspice, ketchup, soya sauce, worchester, sugar, vinegar, mustard, peanuts, onions, flour, semolina, etc.

The dessert could be cake, ice cream, fruit or custard. At lunch, I usually drink mineral water, but some people have juice, soda drinks, coffee, cider, syrup and water, beer or wine.

We have another snack at 4:00 p.m. - sandwiches or fruitcakes with tea or coffee.

The last meal of the day is dinner, served between 6:00 and 7:00 p.m. In many families, the menu usually consists of another warm meal, for example dumplings with sauce, pancakes, potato pancakes or sausages with mustard. If we have a cold dinner it may be cheese, salami, ham, vegetables, and bread.

Preferably, we should drink two litres of liquid every day.

 

DINING

When we expect guests, it is important to set the table. Everyone should have a place and cutlery. On the left side of the plate you place the fork. The spoon and the knife should be placed on the right. You place the dessertspoon above the plate and a glass right above the tip of the knife. Don't forget the napkin, it should be folded neatly on the plate.

 

HEALTHY DIET

When we talk about healthy food we do not mean only the food itself, but also the way it is prepared. lt is better to eat small amounts several times a day, instead of just a few very heavy meals. Dairy products such as milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cottage cheese are often considered part of a healthy diet. Don't just eat white bread, but make sure to eat a lot of whole grain or brown bread. Eat as much fresh products as possible, fresh vegetables, fruits and vitamins. A good diet is rich in minerals and vitamins. It's good to eat in a quiet, relaxed atmosphere, as well as drink a lot of liquid, mineral water, herbal tea, and fruit juice. We shouldn't eat many sweets or fat meat and we should only drink a moderate amount of alcohol and coffee.

 

 

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CZECH CUISINE

 

The Czech diet is not very healthy and people can get fat. It is based on meat, especially pork. Typical Czech meals include: tripe soup, potato soup, "kulajda" soup (mushrooms and potatoes boiled in a little bit of sour cream soup), roasted pork with dumplings and sauerkraut, roasted goose and sauerkraut and dumplings, Wiener schnitzel with potato salad, roasted sirloin beef in sour cream sauce and Czech dumplings, Moravian sparrows (roasted fat pork offcuts), Spanish birds (rolled beef steak filled with salami, pickle, eggs and mustard), potato pancakes, fruit dumplings with cream, baked yeast dumplings, potato or "hairy" dumplings, fried cheese etc.  Most meat is served with potatoes or dumplings. At present many families prefer to cook more vegetable meals, they become vegetarians or try some kind of foreign (Chinese) food.

Czech beer is famous all over the world for its taste and potency. Bohemian and Moravian wines are well known as well. The most popular spirit drink is "Slivovice", a plum brandy, but best of all is the herb-based drink, wonderfully aromatic "Becherovka".

 

 

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BRITISH CUISINE

 

The traditional perception of British cuisine is of overcooked vegetables, tasteless meat and a lot of grease, but British eating habits have changed over last thirty years. Many families now prefer to eat out at restaurants or cafés or to buy take-away Chinese or Indian meals to eat at home.

Traditional English breakfast (sometimes called full or cooked) is quite rich and hot. You start with orange juice, then you have cereal (e.g. cornflakes with milk and sugar), fried eggs and tomato, bacon or sausages. Baked beans in tomato sauce are also popular nowadays. Then there is a crisp piece of toast with butter and marmalade (which is made from oranges), and tea with milk. Continental breakfast is much lighter. It starts with orange juice followed by a croissant (a French roll) with butter and jam, and coffee or tea. Sundays are reserved for their big cooked breakfast called BRUNCH - breakfast and lunch together.

Lunch is a midday meal. It is not the main meal of the day.  It is very common to have something light - like sandwiches, pizza, hamburgers, salad or pies. A sandwich consists of two slices of bread with different fillings in between and it usually has a triangular shape. (The origin of the word "sandwich" is interesting. An 18th century aristocrat, the Earl of Sandwich, loved playing cards. He used to play all day and night and hated to stop for his meals. So he thought of a way of putting meat between two slices of bread. In this way he could eat and play at the same time.) A pie can be sweet - e.g. apple pie or savoury - e.g. chicken pie. It is meat or vegetable or fruit baked in pastry. School children do not usually have their lunches at the school canteen. They bring packed lunch from their homes in special lunch boxes. Staying with a host family, you will probably be given packed lunches as well. What can you expect? Popular sandwiches, some fruit or vegetable, something sweet, some biscuits or a chocolate bar, a soft drink and a small packet of crisps (we use the American expression „chips" for them in our country). The most popular are those with salt and vinegar or cheese and onion. Only some children have a hot meal in the school canteen. Because it is big and hot, it is called a „school dinner".

Tea is Britain's favourite drink. People usually drink quite strong tea with milk. But tea is also a meal in the afternoon at around 5 o'clock. You can expect cucumber sandwiches and scones (plain cakes with jam and cream), or chocolate cakes. Here is how to make a real English "cuppa": Boil water in a kettle. Warm a teapot. Put tea in the teapot - one teaspoon full of tea for each person plus the traditional "one for the pot". Pour the water over the tea leaves and leave it for ten minutes. While serving it, first put a little milk in the cup and pour the tea over it through a tea strainer. Sugar is added according to taste but many English people prefer it without.

Dinner is a hot evening meal and it is more filling. It can be served from 6 to 8 p.m. It is usually eaten when the whole family is together. It usually includes meat, sauce and green vegetables cooked in hot water. It may be also cold - depending on the time of the year. The English are fond of cakes and pies. They are a nation with a very "sweet tooth". Later at night, after a theatre or cinema performance, you can have your supper - something light like cheese and biscuits before you go to bed.

The original British fast food is „fish and chips". Many types of fish are sold (cod, plaice). It is a piece of fish fried in batter and served hot with chipped fried potatoes. People in Britain like chips with salt and vinegar.

British people eat pancakes on Shrove Tuesday in February or March. For pancakes you need flour, eggs and milk. Then you eat them with sugar and lemon. In some parts of Britain there are pancakes races on Shrove Tuesday. People race with a frying pan in one hand. They have to "'toss" the pancake, throw it in the air and catch it again in the frying pan.

Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding - it is the traditional Sunday lunch from Yorkshire in the north of England. It is popular all over Britain now. Yorkshire pudding is not sweet. It is a mixture of eggs, flour and milk, but it is delicious.

Two common vegetables with roast beef and Yorkshire pudding are Brussels sprouts and carrots. And of course, there is always gravy. That is a thick, brown sauce. You make gravy with the juice from the meat.

Some people make Christmas pudding months before Christmas. A lot of families have their own Christmas pudding recipe. Some, for example, use a lot of brandy. Others put in a lot of fruit or add a silver coin for good luck. Real Christmas puddings always have a piece of holly on the top. Holly bushes and trees have red berries at Christmas time, and so people use holly to decorate their houses for Christmas. The holly on the pudding is a part of the decoration. Also, you can pour brandy over your pudding and light it with a match.

 

 

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CUISINE OF THE USA

 

When most people think of American cuisine, the first meal that comes to mind is hamburgers, French fries, and Coca-Cola. Thanks to the spreading of American fast food restaurants around the world, these meals have gained international popularity. The Americans call fast food restaurants "cheapies". These places - McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Mrs. Winner's usually offer beverages (Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, tea, coffee, milkshakes …), and some solid food like roast chicken and chips, hamburgers, sandwiches, pizza, salads or desserts (apple, cherry pie). You can put pickles, mustard, ketchup, onions or tomatoes on your hamburger, too. Another typical feature of American lifestyle is popcorn. You can buy it when walking along the streets. Various kinds of popcorn are sold - either sweet with sugar and other flavours, or cooked with salt. Popcorn is made by cooking grains of corn in very hot oil in a sealed pan. Each grain explodes or "pops" to a form of a soft ball.

However, the American diet is much more rich and diverse than the standard fast food menu would lead you to believe.

Original American food dates to the pre-Columbian era when indigenous people ate meals of corn, squash, pumpkin, and turkey. Today, these foods remain a regular part of the American diet and are especially celebrated at the Thanksgiving celebration in November. On Thanksgiving Day, American families gather together to share the national meat of turkey, sweet potatoes, mashed potatoes, cranberries, and pumpkin pie.

The arrival of immigrants throughout the centuries has expanded American cuisine to include a wide array of international dishes and tastes. Today, ethnic foods are very popular and the weekly menu of a typical American family may include pizza (Italian), Tacos or burritos (Mexican), stir fry (Chinese), and American steak and potatoes.

Different regions in the US boast their own unique fare. In the South, fried chicken is popular, along with the cuisine of African Americans which includes ribs, sweet potatoes, and cooked kale. The Southwest has a flavour of its own. In states such as Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, the influence of Mexican and Native American tastes can be found in spicy Tex-Mex dishes of corn, beans, and chilli. California in the Far West is famous for large fresh salads, exotic ethnic combinations, and healthy light meals. In the ranching and farming regions of Colorado, Montana, and the Midwest, the food consists of traditional American meals: meat, potatoes, and cooked vegetables. Large steaks are a favourite in this area. And, finally, New England is famed for its seafood. Lobsters from Maine are considered the best in the US and Boston clam chowder is world renowned.

The Americans across the continent share a love of sweet desserts. The favourite American dessert is fruit pie served with vanilla ice cream. The Americans enjoy peach pie, blackberry pie, chocolate pie, and pumpkin pie. Apple pie, however, is considered the mist typical American dessert. A common saying in the US is , "It is as American as apple pie."

As many Americans, both men and women, work long hours outside the home, convenient processed and frozen foods have become a staple of the diet. TV dinners are common among many families. These complete frozen meals include a main dish, cooked vegetables and dessert and they can be bought ready-made at the supermarket. Heated up in the microwave, TV dinners provide an instant meal to be eaten while watching TV.

Take-out food from restaurants is also popular. After work, the Americans often stop by a restaurant to pick up Chinese food, deli sandwiches, fried chicken, ribs, or fish and chips to bring home and eat with their family at the dining table. Another alternative is home delivered pizza. The Americans regularly phone the local pizza parlour to place an order, and within a half an hour, a fresh pizza is delivered to their house.

In addition, the Americans enjoy snacks throughout the day. Doughnuts, sweet rolls, and muffins are eaten during the morning hours, along with the newly favourite Jewish bagels. Later in the day, the Americans like to munch on popcorn, cookies, or potato chips.

Breakfasts are usually quick and easy meals eaten before school or work. Many people have a bowl of cereals and milk as a quick start to the day. Others may have toast spread with butter or jam and a glass of juice or milk. Most Americans begin their day with a cup of coffee. A common saying is, "Don't talk to me until I've had my cup of coffee," because coffee gives people the boost they need to participate in the fast working world.

At the weekends, when people have more time, families prepare a heavy breakfast of scrambled eggs and bacon, egg omelettes, or pancakes with maple syrup. On Sundays, families often enjoy going out to restaurants for a large brunch (served between breakfast and lunch, hence the name - BRUNCH) served with champagne.

Lunch is also commonly a simple light meal. Sandwiches are a favourite lunch meal - easy to make at home and bring to work or school in a paper bag. Tuna, salami, cheese, or peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are eaten with a piece of fruit, some potato chips or crackers, and a bottle of juice or soda. Many schools and workplaces have a cafeteria serving lunch. Some people like to eat out at a restaurant for lunch.

Dinner is the large hot meal of the day served between 6:00 and 7:00 pm. The Americans like to eat a complete meal at dinner that includes a main meat or vegetarian dish, salad, cooked vegetables, and potatoes, pasta, or rice. The Americans drink juice, water, or wine with dinner. Children usually have a glass of milk. Beef and pork used to be the most popular meat dishes served at dinner. However, as the Americans are becoming more health conscious, they often prefer white meat such as chicken and fish and try to avoid eating red meat.

A favourite pastime on summer weekends is to grill meat with family and friends in the backyard, at the park, or on the beach. These events are called barbecues and the grilled meat is served with fresh salad, garlic bread, beer or lemonade.

Finally, the Americans enjoy potluck parties for middle sized to large gatherings of people. At the potluck, each guest brings a dish of food to share. All the dishes are placed on one large table and the guests serve themselves from the wide array of specialties. Favourite dishes served at potlucks are fruit salad, lasagne, pasta salad, and chilli beans.

 

 

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PICTURE DICTIONARY

 

Food Fruit

Vegetables Restaurant

 

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PHRASES

 

RESTAURANT

   

Je tu poblíž nějaká restaurace?

Is there a restaurant near here?

Rád bych navštívil čínskou restauraci.

I‘d like to go to the Chinese restaurant.

- typicky anglickou

- a typical English restaurant.

Kam půjdeme na oběd?

Where shall (will) we go for lunch?

Znáte tu nějakou dobrou restauraci?

Do you know of any good restaurant here?

- levnější …

- cheaper restaurant

- nepříliš drahou …

- not very expensive restaurant

- exkluzivní …

- exclusive restaurant

Znám tady blízko dobrou restauraci,

I know a good restaurant nearby, but it‘s

ale je velmi drahá.

very expensive.

Najděme něco levnějšího.

Let‘s find a cheaper one.

Můžeme zajít fo bufetu.

We can drop in at the snack bar.

- do mléčného baru.

- at the milk bar.

- do lidové restaurace.

- at the café.

Kam si sednete?

Where would you like to sit?

Pojďme si sednout ke stolu tam v rohu.

Let‘s take that table in the corner.

- u okna.

- at the window.

- na terase.

- on the terrace.

- uprostřed.

- in the middle.

Posadil bych se raději do rohu.

I would rather sit in the corner.

Pojďme si sednout k tamtomu stolu.

Let‘s sit down at that table.

Jsou tu volná místa?

Are there any free seats here?

Najdou se zde dvě volná místa?

Are there two vacant seats here?

Je tento stůl volný?

Is this table free?

- Ne, lituji, je rezervován.

- No, I‘m  sorry, it‘s reserved.

- Posaďte se prosím tamhle, ano?

- Sit down over there, will you?

Dovolíte?

Would you mind our sitting here?

- Prosím.

- Of course not. Please do.

Mohu si na pátou hodinu večer rezer-

May I book a table for six for five o‘clock

vovat stůl pro šest osob?

tonight?

- Jistě, na jaké jméno?

- Of course, in what name?

 

   

Chtěl bych něco k jídlu.

I‘d like to have something to eat.

Přejete si předkrm?

Would you like hors-d‘oeuvre?

Jako předkrm si dám … .

For hors-d‘oeuvre I will have … .

Chtěl bys předkrm?

Would you like a starter?

Chtěl bys zákusek?

Would you like a dessert?

 

 

Nejprve si dáme...

We’ll start with...

 

 

Dáme si kuřecí polévku.

We will have chicken soup.

- hovězí polévku.

- clear soup.

- vývar s nudlemi.

- beef soup with noodles.

A co hlavní chod?

And what about the main course?

 

 

S čím se to podává?

What is it served with?

 

 

Nedáme si víno?

Shall we have some wine?

 

 

Dali bychom si skleničku / láhev...

We’d like a glass / a bottle of...

 

 

Účet, prosím.

Could we have the bill, please?

 

   

Mohu vám přinést...?

Can I bring you...

 

 

Už jste si vybrali?

Are you ready to order?

Máte vybráno?

May I take your order?

Ovšem, pane.

Of course, sir.

Prosím, pane. Tady máte. (při podávání)

Here you are, sir.

 

   

Máte nějaké vařené maso?

Do you have some boiled meat? (boild)

- dušené

- stewed (stju:d)

- pečené

- roast (rcust)

- grilované

- grilled (grild)

- uzené

- smoked (smoukt)

- mleté

- minced (minst)

- pečené na roštu

- barbecue (ba:bikju:)

- obalované

- breaded (bredid)

- smažené

- fried (fraid)

- na rožni

- meat roasted on spit?

 

   

Dal bych si biftek …

I would like steak …

- hodně propečený.

- well done.  (wel-dan)

- středně propečený.

- medium. (mi:dicm)

- krvavý.

- raw. (ro:)

  

 

Mohl byste nám přinést … .

Could you bring us … ?

- karbenátek.

- fried rissole. (riscul)

- sekanou.

- loaf of meat. (louf)

- dušená játra.

- stewed liver. (stju:d)

- kotletu.

- pork chop. (po:k čop)

- skopovou pečeni.

- leg of mutton. (matn)

- dušené hovězí.

- stewed beef.

- vepřovou roládu.

- rolled pork.

- studenou mísu a salát.

- cold meat and salad.

 

  

Přejete si ještě něco?

Would you like to have anything else?

Dáte si ještě něco?

Any more orders, please?

- Ne, děkuji, už mám dost.

- No, thank you, I‘ve had enough.

 

AT THE TABLE – MEALS

   

Máte hlad?

Are you hungry?

Máte žízeň?

Are you thirsty?

Obědval jste?

Have you had lunch?

Nemáte chuť na ….

Would you like to have ….. ?

Už jsem jedl.

I have already eaten.

Ještě nemám hlad.

I am not hungry yet.

Držím odtučňovací dietu.

I am on a slimming diet.

Nemám na jídlo ani pomyšlení.

I don‘t feel like eating at all.

 

 

Mohu vás pozvat na oběd?

May I invite you to lunch?

- na skleničku?

- for a drink?

- na večeři?

- to supper / dinner?

 

    

Nechcete jít s námi na večeři?

Would you like to join us for dinner?

 

    

Co si přejete ke snídani?

What will you have for breakfast?

Co si dáme k obìdu?

What are we having for dinner?

 

   

Zavoláme číšníka, číšnici.

We will call the waiter, waitress.

Jídelní lístek, prosím.

Could we have the menu, please?

 

   

Přinesl byste jídelní lístek, prosím?

Please, would you bring the menu?

Mohu dostat jídelníček?

May I have the menu?

Už máte objednáno?

Have you ordered your meal?

- Nemám, mohu si objednat?

- No, will you take my order?

- Mùžeme si u vás objednat?

- May we order now?

 

   

Co si dáte?

What will you have?

Co si přejete?

What would you like?

Chcete … ?

Would you like …

- Co máte dnes k jídlu?

- What‘s on the menu for today ?

- Jakou specialitu dnes máte?

- What‘s today‘s special?

- Co nám doporučujete?

- What do you recommend?

- Jaké aperitivy podáváte?

- What kinds of aperitives do you serve?

- Dejte nám ….

- Could you bring us … ?

- Chtěl bych … .

- I would like … .

- Dal bych si … .

- I would like to have … .

- Mam chuť na … .

- I feel like having … .

- Já mám rád … .

- I like … .

- Já mám raději … .

- I prefer … .

 

    

Co budete jíst / pít?

What will you eat / drink?

Co si dáš k pití?

What will you have to drink?

Co si dáš k jídlu?

What will you have to eat?

Dám si...

I’ll have...

Já si asi dám...

I think I’ll have...

 

 

Dobrou chuť.

Enjoy your meal.

Chutná vám to?

Do you like it?

Chutnalo vám to?

Did you like it?

To je moje oblíbené jídlo.

It‘s my favourite dish.

Je to výborné.

It is delicious.

Velice mi to chutná.

I like it very much.

 

AT THE TABLE – DRINKS

    

Něco k pití?

Anything to drink?

Budete něco pít?

Will you be having anything to drink?

Co si dáme k pití?

What shall (will) we have for drink?

Dejme si něco k pití.

Let‘s have a drink.

 

   

Máte minerálku?

Have you mineral water?

- bílé víno?

- white wine?

- whisky s ledem?

- whisky on the rock?

- lahvové pivo?

- bottled beer? (botld)

- čepované pivo?

- draught beer? (dra:ft)

- světlé pivo?

- light beer?

- sodovku?

- soda water?

- pomerančovou šťávu?

- orange juice?

 

  

Pane vrchní, prosím, ještě jednu láhev

Waiter, will you bring us another bottle of

bílého vína.

white wine, please?

 

   

láhev vína

a bottle of wine

sklenička červeného vína

a glass of red wine

šálek kávy

a cup of coffee

 

   

Mohu vám ještě nalít?

Will you have some more?

Vezmu si trochu …

I will have some …

Prosím, ještě jeden šálek čaje.

I‘d like to have another cup of tea.

 

 

To víno je příliš sladké.

The wine is too sweet.

 

    

Připijme si na zdraví.

Let‘s drink to our health.

Na zdraví!

To your health! Cheers!

Ať slouží!

Long may you live!

 

COMPLAINTS

   

Pane vrchní, ten ubrus je mokrý.

Waiter, please, this tablecloth is wet.

Prosím, přineste čistý ubrus.

Will you bring a clean tablecloth, please?

Mohl byste nám utřít stùl?

Will you wipe the table, please?

 

  

Tady chybí lžíce.

There is a spoon missing.

- ubrousek.

- a napkin

- příbor.

- a cutlery

- slánka.

- a salt shaker

- cukřenka.

- a sugar bowl

 

   

Pane vrchní, platím.

Waiter, the bill, please.

 

Will you bring us the bill, please?

Měl jsem …

I  have had … .

Měli jsme …

We have had ….

Tady je chyba.

There is a mistake, here.

Je to včetně obsluhy?

Is service included?

To je pro vás.

Here, this is for you.

 

 

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