SPORTS AND GAMES

 

 

Sports in general Picture dictionary Projects

British sport. traditions ESC - sports - UK PDF version

Sports in the USA ESC - sports - USA Menu Topics

Phrases Exercises, revision

 

 

SPORTS IN GENERAL

 

Sport is a very important part of our life and it is becoming more and more popular. Doing sports keeps us healthy, relaxed, as well as maintains our figure and strengthens our patience and endurance. All doctors recommend exercising, as prevention and convalescence of various ailments. One of the best workouts for your body is swimming, as all your muscles are exercised.

There are two kinds of athletes - amateurs and professionals. The amateur approach to sport is when you exercise, jog, swim or go to the gym once in a while. Often sports are performed together as a team, instead of just as individuals.

The new fitness centres with their bodybuilding programmes and tanning booths are becoming very trendy. Some people's ambition is to look like a model, and they often go to the fitness centre.

Professional sports

Some people are so interested in sports that they want to make it their main livelihood. Sometimes they only get paid for their travels and equipment, but if they keep improving their results, there is a fair chance they could go to the world competitions, which improves their chances of earning more money. The highest achievement for sportsmen is usually to participate in the Olympic Games and win a gold medal.

The Olympic Games are performed every four years, but not all the different kinds of sports which exist are represented there; however new disciplines are added every time the games are held. The Olympic Games are named after the city in Greece where it took place for the first time in the year 776 B.C. and it was held there every four years for a long period of time. The intentions of the games were to allow the best sportsmen in the country to compete, and their ideal was to promote perfect men both in body and soul (as the games at that time were only for men). Another idea of the games was to keep peace during the competitions, as there were often minor wars going on at the time.

The contemporary tradition of the games started in 1896, in Athens. The initiator was Pierre de Coubertin. Since then, the event has taken place every four years, excepting during the world wars. Since 1924, a special winter Olympics has been held. The International Olympic Committee is now managing the games from its seat in Lausanne, Switzerland. The well-known symbol of the games is the five intertwined different coloured circles on a white background. They symbolise the five continents.

Here is a list of some of the different categories of sports:

Winter sports: cross country skiing, downhill skiing, ski jump, snowboarding, ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, and sledging.

Water sports: swimming (free style, backstroke, crawl), windsurfing, surfing, diving, deep-sea diving, water-skiing, rowing, canoeing, water polo, sailing, yachting.

Martial sports: boxing, fencing, judo, karate, wrestling, Aikido, jiu-jitsu.

Nature sports: fishing, rock climbing, hiking, cycling, horse riding, roller blading, cross-country running.

Light Athletics: sprinting events, long-distance running, hurdle racing, relay racing, speed walking, jumping (high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault), throwing the discus, the hammer, the javelin, putting the shot.

Team sports: football, volleyball, basketball, handball, tennis, rugby, baseball, cricket.

Most sports are performed at specialised facilities, such as: sports halls, tennis and golf courts, an open air stadium, a winter stadium, an open air pool, a swimming pool, a gym, a bowling alley, ski slopes, trails and playgrounds.

Various equipments are used in each of the disciplines. It could be a tennis racket, a ball, a net, a goal, a golf ball, a baseball, a hockey stick, skates, protective clothing, basketball, volleyball, skis and the various gymnastic 'obstacles'.

Physical Education (PE)

At the secondary school that I attend, we have PE three times a week. This is how it goes: We put on our sport suits - a T shirt, shorts and running shoes, and line up for the start of the lesson. When this is done, one of us reports to the teacher that we are ready.

We start by stretching and warming up, to get our bodies flexible and ready. It varies what kind of sport we do, sometimes it is athletics: sprint or long distance running, jumping or maybe we do team sports such as volleyball, football or basketball. We also have a weight training room or the possibility to do aerobics. I personally prefer to do gymnastics, such as forward and backward somersaults and I really don't like the rope or pole climbing.

We don't have a swimming pool in our town; instead we take a week-long swimming course in the summer and a skiing course during the winter.

 

 

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BRITISH SPORTING TRADITIONS

 

Oxford and Cambridge are Britain's two oldest universities. In the nineteenth century, rowing was a popular sport at both of them. In 1829 the universities agreed to have a race. They raced on the river Thames and the Oxford boat won. That started a tradition. Now, every spring, the University Boat Race goes from Putney to Mortlake on the Thames. That is 6.7 kilometres. The Cambridge rowers wear light blue shirts and the Oxford rowers wear dark blue. There are eight men in each boat. There is also a ”cox”. The cox controls the boat. Traditionally coxes are men, but Susan Brown became the first woman cox in 1981. She was the cox for Oxford and they won.

ROYAL ASCOT

Ascot is a small quiet town in the south of England. But in June for one week it becomes the centre of the horse-racing world. It's called Royal Ascot because the Queen always goes to Ascot. She has a Iot of racehorses and Iikes to watch racing. But Ascot week isn't just for horseracing. It's for fashion, too. One woman, Mrs Gertrude Shilling, always wears very big hats. You can see hats of every shapes and sizes here.

WIMBLEDON

The world's most famous tennis tournament is Wimbledon. It started at a small club in south London in the nineteenth century. Now a lot of the nineteenth-century traditions have changed. For example, the women players don’t have to wear long skirts. And the men players don't have to wear long trousers. But other traditions haven't changed at Wimbledon. The courts are still grass, and visitors still eat strawberries and cream. The language of tennis hasn't changed either. Did you know that "love" (zero) comes from "l'oeuf” (the egg) in French?

VETERAN CAR RALLY

”Vintage” cars have to be more than fifty years old and in very good condition. Lots of people keep or collect vintage cars. And on the first Sunday in November there is a race or ”rally" for them. It starts in London and it finishes in Brighton, a town on the south coast of England. That's a distance of seventy kilometres. A Iot of people in the rally wear "vintage" clothes.

Before 1896 a man with a red flag had to walk in front of cars. In 1896 it changed. A group of happy drivers broke their flags and drove to Brighton. There they had a party. Now the rally is a sporting tradition.

BOXING DAY HUNTS

Traditionally Boxing Day is a day for foxhunting. The huntsmen and huntswomen ride horses. They use dogs, too. The dogs (fox hounds) follow the smell of the fox. Then the huntsmen and huntswomen follow the hounds.

Before a Boxing Day hunt, the huntsmen and huntswomen drink hot wine. But the tradition of the December 26th hunt is changing. Now, some people want to stop Boxing Day hunts (and other hunts, too). They don't like foxhunting. For them it is not a sport - it is cruel.

THE HIGHLAND GAMES

This sporting tradition is Scottish. In the Highlands (the mountains of Scotland) families, or "clans", started the games hundreds of years ago.

Some of the sports at the games are international: the high jump and the long jump, for example. But other sports happen only at the Highland Games. One is tossing the caber. ”Tossing” means throwing, and a "caber" is a long, heavy piece of wood. In tossing the caber you lift the caber (it can be five or six metres long). Then you throw it in front of you.

At the Highland games a lot of men wear kilts. These are national Scottish skirts for men. But they're not all the same. Each clan has a different "tartan". That's the name for the pattern on the kilt. So at the Highland games there are traditional sports and traditional clothes. And there is traditional music, too, from Scotland's national instrument - the bagpipes. The bagpipes are very loud. They say Scots soldiers played them before a battle. The noise frightened the soldiers on the other side.

 

 

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SPORTS IN THE USA

 

The Americans are crazy about sports. Spectator sports play an important role in American life. Many Americans regularly attend sporting events, watch sports on TV, and listen to sports on the radio. There is also a variety of sports magazines and most newspapers have a sports section. American football is generally the most popular sport, followed by baseball, and basketball.

The Americans like to talk about sports as a topic of conversation. At work, at school, and at social gatherings they discuss game scores and sports' strategies and they make predictions, even bets on the winning teams.

Children are encouraged to join sports teams at an early age. In every city or town there are children's leagues for baseball, soccer, football, and basketball. Often, both boys and girls play together on the same team.

All year round, high school and college teams compete in different sports. The football season is in fall. Basketball matches are held in winter. Spring is the season for baseball, track and field, and swimming.

High School and college sports' events are a big production drawing large crowds to the stadiums. Cheerleaders, bands, and parades make these events exciting and lively. Colleges and universities actively recruit skilful high school players.

The best young athletes receive scholarships to attend the universities and play for their teams. The finest college athletes are then selected to play in the professional leagues. Professional sports in the US are big business. Professional athletes are paid enormous salaries by the team owners as incentive to win and continue drawing crowds to the stadium. In addition, companies that sell sports wear and equipment heavily advertise at sports events.

Cities compete to attract professional teams. A city that is the home to a major team gains employment, revenue, and prestige.

Each professional sport in the USA has its own national competition. Football teams across the country compete for the grand prize in the Superbowl. In basketball, the highest achievement is to win the NBA Championship. Baseball teams strive to win in the World Series.

Women's athletics has gained popularity in recent years. All female basketball teams are renowned for their skill and intense competition. Even in ice hockey there are strongly competitive women's leagues. American women enjoy playing tennis, golf, baseball, volleyball, soccer, field hockey, and football. Most cities have amateur coed leagues where men and women from age twenty to sixty can play together in basketball, baseball, soccer, and volleyball teams.

Staying fit is a national obsession in the US. Many Americans belong to fitness clubs where they can lift weights, work out on exercise machines, and participate in aerobics, yoga, and stretching classes. The Americans also like to go jogging or running. In the early morning before work, or during the lunch hour and late afternoon, parks are filled with joggers, runners, rollerbladers, and cyclists. The Americans also like to go skiing, snowboarding, windsurfing, surfing, kayaking, and fishing.

 

 

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PHRASES

 

Máte rádi sport?

Do you like sports?

Děláte nějaký sport?

Do you go in for sports?

Jste dobrý sportovec?

Are you good at sports?

Hrajte fotbal?

Do you play football?

- Ne, hraji košíkovou.

- No, I play basketball.

- Pěstuji turistiku.

- I have taken up hiking.

- Rád bruslím.

- I am fond of skating.

 

- I like skating.  I like to skate.

 

FOOTBALL

 

Šel bys zítra s námi na fotbal?

Would you like to go to a football match with us

 

tomorrow?

- Kdo hraje?

- Who is playing who?

Itálie proti Španělsku.

Italy is playing Spain.

- Kdo myslíte, že vyhraje?

- Who do you tip to win?

Tipuji na vítězství Španělska 2:1.

I tip Spain to win two one.

Jak skončil včerejší zápas?

What was the score of yesterday’s match?

- Vyhráli jsme.

- We won.

- Prohráli jsme nula jedna.

- We lost nil to one.

- Nerozhodně jedna jedna.

- In a draw – one all.

Utkání skončilo nerozhodně.

The match ended in a draw.

Domácí zvítězili čtyři dva.

The home team won four to two.

Liverpool porazil West-Ham čtyři dva.

West-Ham was beaten two to four by Liverpool.

Kdo střelil první branku?

Who was the first to score?

Kdo vyrovnal?

Who scored the equalizer?

Jeden hráč byl vyloučen.

One player was sent off the field.

 

VOLLEYBALL

 

Hrajete volejbal?

Do you play volleyball?

Zahrajete si s námi volejbal?

Will you play volleyball with us?

Já mám servis.

It’s my turn to serve.

To byl aut.

It was an out.

Ztráta.

Loss.

Patnáct deset pro vás.

Fifteen points to ten for you.

Dáme si ještě jeden set?

Let’s have another set, shall we?

 

CYCLING

 

Rád bych si vyjel na kole.

I’d like to go cycling.

Cyklistika je můj oblíbený sport?

Cycling is my favourite sport.

Jezdím na kole každý den.

I go cycling every day.

Do práce jezdím na kole.

I go to work by bike.

 

TENNIS

 

Tenis je mojí oblíbenou hrou.

Tennis is my favourite game.

Je možné si někde zahrát tenis?

Is it possible to play tennis here?

Chtěl bych si pronajmout kurt. Na tři

I would like to hire a court.

hodiny.

For three hours.

Kdy a na jak dlouho si můžeme

When and for how long can we hire a court?

pronajmout kurt?

    

Půjčujete tenisové pálky a rakety?

Do you hire out tennis rackets and

 

table tennis bats?

Zahrajeme si dvouhru, nebo čtyřhru?

Shall we play singles or doubles?

 

SWIMMING

 

Pojďme se vykoupat.

Let’s go for a swim.

Kolik se platí vstupné na pláž?

What is the admission fee to the beach?

Je tu pláž, kde se neplatí?

Is there any free beach around here?

- krytý plavecký bazén?

- swimming-pool….?

- koupaliště?

- bathing-pool …?

- bazén s umělými vlnami?

- swimming-pool with artificial waves?

Kolik stojí kabinka na den?

How much is the cabin for one day?

Kde jsou sprchy?

Where are the showers, please?

Je možné si tu půjčit lehátko?

Can I hire a deckchair here?

- slunečník?

- a sunshade…?

- plovací kruh?

- a water ring …?

- nafukovací matraci?

- an airbed …?

Chtěl bych si lehnout do stínu.

I would like to go and lie in the sunshade.

Já se budu opalovat.

I’m going to sunbathe.

Namažte se olejem, ať se nespálíte.

You must apply some suntan oil not to get

 

sunburnt.

Je zde kamenitá nebo písčitá pláž?

Is the beach here sandy or stony?

 

SKIING

 

Umíte lyžovat?

Can you ski?

Kam jezdíte na lyže?

Where do you go skiing?

Jaký je sníh?

What is the snow like?

- Mokrý.

- It’s wet.

- Lepkavý.

- It’s sticky.

- Prašan.

- It’s powdery.

Je tu vlek nebo sedačkový výtah?

Is there a ski tow or a ski lift?

Je možné si tu vypůjčit lyže?

Can I rent (hire) skis here?

- sáňky?

- a sledge…?

- boby?

- a bobsleigh…?

Musím namazat lyže.

I will have to wax my skis.

Jaký vosk byste mi radil?

What kind of ski wax can you recommend?

 

 

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PICTURE DICTIONARY

 

Sports 1 Sports 3

Sports 2 Sports 4 

 

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