HEALTH AND DISEASES

 

 

Health care ESC-soc. welfare-UK Projects

Vocabulary ESC-soc. welfare-USA PDF version

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Phrases

 

 

HEALTH CARE

 

Medical care of any type in our country is free of charge, although there are now many private doctors. We do not pay for prescriptions or for some medicines. But for other medicines, especially for those from abroad, we must pay.

For a long time the state has been looking after each of its citizens - even before birth - under the scheme called Mother and Child Care. There are medical checkups before the child is born and maternity ward services.

As to financial help after giving birth, mothers get benefits for three years after the birth of a child. For the first 26 weeks she gets 90 per cent of her pay and for the rest of her maternity leave she gets fewer benefits.

Then comes medical and social care during the pre-school and school age, up to old age. The term "free medical care" includes any type of medical treatment - from seeing your doctor because of a common cold to the most complicated operation. The Health insurance system is undergoing some changes at present.

Employers pay health insurance for their employees but everybody can pay extra money for his/her health insurance. Private people must buy their health insurance themselves.

If we fall ill or if we have an accident, we go to the Health Centre, Policlinic, Hospital or to some Private Doctor. Many factories and offices have their own doctors. To improve the situation and promote the competition we can choose our doctors now.

There are various types of medical treatment for our different types of troubles. Doctors may ask you to strip to the waist before he/she examines your chest and throat. They check our blood pressure, feel the pulse or put our blood or urine through lab-tests to take for example a blood-count. Sometimes they may X-ray our lungs or bones. We must go through many types of vaccination during our lives. Dentists may check our teeth and sometimes pull out one of them or drill and fill them. For older people they sometimes fit bridges on their teeth or make dentures. Doctors usually prescribe some medicines to us - pills, antibiotics, gargling, eye-wash, sleeping pills, ointments or they tell us to go on a diet. After operations, scars remain on our bodies.

There are various types of physicians who treat various diseases and disorders. They are e.g. GP (general practitioners), dentists, surgeons, interns, oculists, paediatricians, gynaecologists, psychiatrists, dermatologists, ear and throat specialists, orthopaedic specialists etc.

Each person should undergo a regular check-up at least once a year. However we usually go to see our doctor when we do not feel well or have a temperature.

We can suffer from various illnesses beginning with common children diseases such as: measles, chicken pox, mumps, scarlet-fever, otitis. Usually we suffer from common infections such as cold, flu, angina, indigestion, diarrhoea or constipation. In such cases we stay in bed, drink herbal teas, take pills, drops or vitamins and after a week or two we feel well again.

However the situation may sometimes be more serious and needs special treatment in the hospital, e. g. heart attack, appendicitis, breaking an arm or leg, animal or snake bite, severe bleeding, poisoning, unconsciousness or in the case of some real dangerous disease such as tuberculosis, anaemia, pneumonia, leukaemia, diabetes, hepatitis etc. The doctors' care must be very attentive because human life is in danger. It is the same situation with all possible operations and surgeon interferences. It is enough to say that there are still diseases which cannot be cured such as cancer or AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

There are also many other problems which do not help avoid or prevent health problems (e.g. extreme  poverty of many people all around the world, large sums of money put toward armament instead of health insurance, the human environment is spoilt, we do not live in balance with nature).

It is true that prevention is better than a cure. In other words, the best way to cure yourself of a disease is not to catch it. We should try to live a healthy way of life, which means we should have a good proportion of work to leisure time, between our sleep and up time, to keep our mental state in order. We should practise sports, at least swim or go for walks, we should eat healthy food with lots of vitamins, we should not smoke, drink too much alcohol, become drug addicts or change our intimate friends too often. Generally speaking we should lead such a way of life to keep our mind and body in a perfect state and balance.

The World Health Organization, which is a specialized agency of the UN dealing with health and living conditions, and came into existence on 7th April 1948 (the annual World Health Day), has defined health as a state of physical and social prosperity and not only the absence of disease.

In Britain, the National Health Service (NHS) provides free health care to all people in the country. Everybody is free to choose a general practitioner (GP) in his own home area and be registered on his list. In towns it is usual for three or four GPs to join together in partnership and thus share the cost of expensive medical technology.

If you need special treatment, the doctor will send you to see a specialist at the local hospital. In an emergency, you can call an ambulance by dialling 999 from any telephone. In England, the companies also pay insurance for their employees and the government for other people.

In the United States, there are two different types of health insurance. Most people have private health insurance. If you have a fractured arm, a heart attack, or even a blister, it is possible to choose your doctor and have treatment. You pay the doctor, and then send the bill for the treatment to your insurance company. They will then send you the money. The problem is that private health insurance is expensive, especially for treatment that needs specialists, such as treatment for heart attacks. If one is poor, the government will pay the doctor for treatment. Many people, however, are not poor, but do not have the money to pay for private health insurance because it is very expensive. If they fall ill, they must pay for it themselves. This is a big problem now in the USA, because a hospital must take care of people, if they fall very ill, even if they do not have the money, and this is difficult for many hospitals.

 

  

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VOCABULARY

 

ILLNESES

  

nemoc

illness (ilnis)

choroba, nemoc

disease (di,zi:z)

porucha, potíže

disorder (dis'o:dә)

mysl a tělo

mind and body (maind ænd bodi)

nehoda, neštěstí

accident ('æksidәnt)

prevence

prevention (pri'venšәn)

prohlídka

check-up (čekap)

zdravý způsob života

healthy way of life (helӨi wei әv laif)

AIDS, syndrom imunitní nedostatečnosti 

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom

angína

tonsillitis (tonsi'laitis)

bezvědomí

unconsciousness (an'konšәsnis)

cukrovka

diabetes (,daiә'bi:ti:z)

dětská obrna

polio (pәuliәu)

ekzém

tetter (tetә)

chřipka

flu, influenza (flu:,  ,influ'enzә)

chudokrevnost

anaemia (ә'ni:miә)

infekce

infection (in'fekšәn)

ischias

sciatica (saiætikә)

jizva

scar (ska:)

kýla

hernia (hә:niә)

ledvinové kameny

kidney stones (kidni stәunz)

leukémie

leukaemia (lu:'ki:miә)

mrtvice

stroke (strouk), apoplexy ('æpәpleksi)

nespavost

insomnia (insomniә)

nevolnost

indigestion (indidžesčәn)

operace

operation (,opә'reišәn)

otrava krve

blood poisoning (blad poizәniŋ)

otřes mozku

concussion (kәn'kašn)

plané neštovice

chicken-pox (čikin-poks)

ploténky

slipped discs (slipt disks)

pohlavní nemoci

V.D.; Venereal diseases (vi,niәriәl)

potrat

abortion (әbo:šn)

prostata

prostate (prәsteit)

průjem

diarrhoea (daiә'riә)

příušnice

mumps (mamps)

rakovina

cancer (kænsә)

senná rýma

hay fever (hei fi:vә)

spála

scarlet fever (ska:lәt fi:vә)

spalničky

measles (mi:zlz)

srdeční mrtvice

heart failure (ha:t feiljә)

srdeční záchvat

heart attack (ha:t әtæk)

tuberkulóza

TB, tuberculosis (tju,bә:kjulәusis)

tyfus

typhoid (taifoid)

úžeh

sunstroke (sanstrәuk)

vřed

ulcer (alsә)

vyrážka

rash (ræš)

vysoký krevní tlak

high blood-pressure (hai blad prešә)

zácpa

constipation (,konsti'peišn)

zápal mozkových blan

encephalitis (ensefә'laitis)

zánět průdušek

bronchitis (bron'kaitis)

zánět středniho ucha

inflammation of the middle ear, otitis (,inflә'meišn),

 

(ou'taitis)

zánět jater

hepatitis (hepәtaitis)

zápal plic

pneumonia (nju'mәunjә)

zápal slepého střeva

appendicitis (әpendi'saitis)

záškrt

diphtheria (difӨiәriә)

zhoubný nádor

malignant tumor (mә'lignәnt tju:mә)

zlomenina

fracture (frækčә)

žloutenka

jaundice (džo:ndis)

žlučníkový záchvat

bilious attack (biljәs ә'tæk)

žlučové kameny

gall stones (go:l stәunz)

 

TYPES OF PHYSICIANS

     

medical treatment, cure ('medikl 'tri:tmәnt)

léčba

dentist (dentist)

zubař, zubní lékař

dermatologist (,dә:ma'tolәdžist)

dermatolog, kožní lékař

ear and throat specialist (iәr ænd Өrout ... )

ušní a krční lékař

general practitioner (dženәrәl præk'tišәnә), G.P.

praktický lékař, obvodní lékař (G.P.)

gynaecologist (,gaini'kolәdžist)

gynekolog

oculist (okjulist)

oftalmolog, oční lékař

orthopaedist (o:ðәu'pi:dist)

ortopéd

internist (in'tә:nist)

internista, lékař pro choroby vnitřní

paediatrician (,pi:diә'trišәn)

pediatr, dětsky lékař

psychiatrist (sai'kaiәtrist)

psychiatr

surgeon (sә:džәn)

chirurg

 

SOCIAL CARE

    

benefit ('benifit)

dávka, podpora

- injury benefit (indžәri)

- úrazové pojištění, dávky

- maternity benefit (mә'tә:niti)

- mateřský příspěvek

- sickness benefit (siknis)

- nemocenské dávky

- unemployment benefit ('anim'ploimәnt)

- podpora v nezaměstnanosti

- widow benefit (widou)

- vdovský důchod

family allowances ('fæmili 'әlauәnsiz)

rodinné přídavky

maternity leave (mә'tә:niti li:v)

mateřská dovolená

insurance (in'šuәrns)

pojištění

- buy insurance (bai in'šuәrns)

platit si pojištění

invalidity pension (,invәlidәti penšәn)

invalidní důchod

retirement pension (ri’taiәmәnt penšәn)

starobní důchod

 

VERBS

   

check (ček)

kontrolovat, prohlížet

deal (di:l)

zabývat se něčím

drill (dril)

vrtat zub (i vrtačka, vrták)

examine (ig'zæmin)

vyšetřit, prohlédnout pacienta

feel the pulse (fi:l ðә pals)

nahmatat, změřit tep

fill (fil)

zaplombovat zub

keep (ki:p)

udržovat

prevent (pri'vent)

chránit, předcházet

put through lab-tests

dát na rozbor

pull out (pul aut)

vytáhnout zub

strip (strip)

svléknout se, svléknout

suffer from (safә frәm)

trpět čím

undergo (andә'gәu)

podstoupit, podrobit se

x-ray (eksrei)

rentgenovat (taky paprsek)

 

 

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PICTURE DICTIONARY

 

Human body 1 Human body 2 Medical service 

 

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PHRASES

 

AT THE DOCTOR’S

    

Jak se dnes cítíš?

How are you feeling today?

- Necítím se moc dobře.

- I am not feeling too well.

- Nejsem ve své kůži.

- I am not of sorts.

- Necítím se dobře.

- I feel off colours. I feel unwell.

- Cítím se špatně.

- I am feeling ill.

- Cítím se pod psa.

- I feel under the weather.

- Cítím se dobře.

- I feel fine.

- Nic mi není.

- I am all right.

Co je s tebou?

What’s the matter with you?

Co se ti stalo?

What happened to you?

Není ti dobře?

Are you not feeling well?

Co tě trápí?

What is troubling you?

Nevypadáš dobře.

You don’t look well.

Jsi trochu bledý.

You are a bit pale.

- Bolí mě hlava.

- I have a headache.

- Bolí mě břicho.

- I have a stomachache.

- Bolí mě v krku.

- I have a sore throat.

- Bolí mě ucho.

- I have an earache.

- Bolí mě zub.

- I have a toothache.

- Bolí mě v zádech.

- I have a backache.

 

I have a pain in my back.

 

My back aches / hurts.

- Bolí mě u srdce.

- I have a pain in my heart.

- Bolí mě žlučník.

- I have pain in my gall-bladder.

- Mám potíže s …

- I have trouble with my …

- Mám bolavou nohu.

- I have a sore leg.

- Mám rýmu.

- I have a cold.

- Mám silnou rýmu.

- I have a bad cold.

- Kašlu.

- I have a cough.

- Mám rýmu.

- I have got a runny nose.

 

 

- Je mi mdlo.

- I feel faint.

- Točí se mi hlava.

- I feel dizzy.

 

My head is spinning.

- Chce se mi zvracet.

- I feel sick.

 

- I feel like vomiting.

- Bodla mě vosa.

- I was stung by a wasp.

- Mám zvýšenou teplotu.

- I have a raised temperature.

- Mám horečku.

- I have a fever.

- Silně se potím.

- I perspire a lot.

- Upadl jsem.

- I fell down. I have fallen over.

- Odřel jsem se.

- I have bruised myself.

- Zlomil jsem si nohu.

- I have broken my leg.

- Vymknul jsem si kotník.

- I’ve sprained my ankle.

- Uhodil jsem se do nohy.

- I hit my leg.

- Popálil jsem si ruku.

- I have burned my hand.

- Spadlo mi něco do oka.

- Something has fallen into my eye.

- Spálil jsem se na slunci.

- I have got sunburn.

- Špatně spím.

- I am sleeping badly.

- Nemohu usnout.

- I cannot get to sleep.

- Nemám chuť k jídlu.

- I have no appetite.

- Mám průjem.

- I have diarrhoea.

- Mám zácpu.

- I have constipation.

- Nemohu se nadechnout.

- I can’t catch my breath.

- Hrozně krvácím.

- I am bleeding awfully.

- Nemám chuť k jídlu

- I have lost my appetite.

- Mám vysoký tlak.

- I suffer from high blood pressure.

- Je na to lék?

- Is there a cure for it?

Zavolejte lékaře.

Call for a doctor.

Zavolejte mi, prosím, lékaře.

Call me a doctor, please.

Kdy ordinuje lékař?

When is the doctor in attendance?

Musím se objednat?

Do I have to make an appointment?

Můžete mě objednat na zítra ráno?

Can I make an appointment for tomorrow morning?

Jsem objednán u...

I have got an appointment with...

Posaďte se v čekárně.

Take a seat in the waiting room, please.

Další!

Next, please!

Musím jít na (preventivní) prohlídku.

I must go for a (general) check-up.

Musím si změřit teplotu.

I must take my temperature.

Kde vás bolí?

Where do you feel the pain?

Musíte ležet deset dní.

You have to stay in bed for ten days.

Musíte držet přísnou dietu.

You will have to keep a strict diet.

Předepíšu vám nějaké tablety.

I will prescribe you some tablets.

Změřím vám teplotu.

I’ll take your temperature.

Uděláme krevní test.

We’ll do a blood test.

Za týden přijďte na kontrolu.

Come for a check-up in a week.

                                                                 

AT THE CHEMIST’S

    

lékařský předpis

medical prescription (medikl pris'kripšn)

 

  

Kde prodáváte léky na předpis?

Where do you sell drugs on prescription?

- bez receptu?

- without prescription?

 

   

Prosil bych něco proti bolestem.

I would like something for pains.

 

I would like some pain-killers.

 

   

Dejte mi ….

Can you give me ……. ?

- něco na nespavost.

- something for insomnia.

- prášky pro spaní.

- sleeping pills. ('sli:piõ pils)

- něco na bolení zubů.

- something for toothache.

- nějaké pilulky na …

- some pills for … (pils)

- nějaké tablety na …

- some tablets for … ('tFblits)

- nějaké mazání.

- some lotion. ('loušn)

- něco na menstruační bolesti.

- something for menstrual pains.

- kapky do nosu.

- nasal drops.

- oční kapky.

- eye drops.

- borovou vodu.

- boric acid. (borik Fsid)

- široký obvaz.

- wide compress. (waid 'kompres)

- leukoplast.

- elastoplast (i'lFstoplFst)

- dámské vložky.

- sanitary towels. ('sFnitri tauclz)

- tampóny.

- tampons. (tFmpcnz)

- vatu.

- cotton-wool. ('kotn 'wul)

- jednu destilovanou vodu.

- one bottle of distilled water.

- bylinkový čaj.

- herbal tea. ('hc:bcl ti:)

- heřmánkový čaj.

- camomile tea. ('kFmcmail ti:)

- lípový čaj.

- lime tea. (laim ti:)

- mátový čaj.

- peppermint tea. ('pepcmint ti:)

- ovocný čaj.

- fruit tea. (fru:t ti:)

- kloktadlo.

- gargling. (ga:gliõ)

- nějakou mast na ….

- some ointment for … (ointment)

- něco na pocení.

- something to increase perspiration.

Jak mám ty léky užívat?

How should I use the drugs?

- Berte tři tablety denně na lačný žaludek.

- Take three tablets a day on an empty  stomach.

- Berte dvě tablety třikrát denně

- Take two tablets three times a day  before meals.

  před jídlem.

 

- Polkněte je celé.

- Swallow  the tablets whole.

- Cucejte je.

- Suck them.

- Tato vodička je jen pro vnější použití.

- This lotion is for external use only.

- Pět kapek na cukr po jídle.

- Five drops on sugar after meal.

- Deset kapek do lžíce s vodou.

- Ten drops into a spoon of water.

 

HEALTHY WAY OF LIFE

   

 

 

I’m so healthy...

   

I’m very fit.

Jsem velmi fit.

I exercise a lot.

Hodně cvičím.

I’ve got healthy eating habits.

Zdravě jím.

I eat a balanced diet.

Jím vyváženou stravu.

I avoid red meat.

Vyhýbám se červenému masu.

I haven’t got a sweet tooth.

Nejsem na sladké.

I get plenty of fresh air.

Jsem hodně na čestvém vzduchu.

I never have to go to the doctor’s.

Nikdy nemusím chodit k lékaři.

I’m so unhealthy...

     

I can’t stand exercise.

Nesnáším cvičení.

I am a little overweight.

Mám trošku nadváhu.

I need to change my lifestyle.

Musím změnit životní styl.

I’ve got a few bad habits.

Mám několik zlozvyků.

I don’t watch what I eat.

Nehlídám, co jím.

I eat too many snacks.

Příliš často mlsám.

I use too much salt / sugar.

Moc solím / sladím.

I smoke 20 cigarettes a day.

Kouřím 20 cigaret denně.

I need to give up smoking.

Musím přestat kouřit.

Diets and me

   

I am on a diet.

Držím (redukční) dietu.

I need to go on a diet.

Musím začít držet dietu.

I need to lose weight.

Musím zhubnout.

I need to put on weight.

Potřebuji přibrat na váze.

 

 

HOW TO ADDRESS DOCTORS

 

·           Lékaře / Lékařku oslovujeme v angličtině většinou pouze “Doctor!”.

·           Můžeme užít i příjmení: “Doctor Thomas!”.

·           Výrazy Mr a Mrs (srovn. české “pane doktore”) se v osloveních neužívají.

·           Slovo doctor jako titul se vždy píše s velkým písmenem: Dear Doctor Thomas...

 

 

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