AGRICULTURE

 

 

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AGRICULTURE IN GENERAL

 

Agriculture is a very important branch of the national economy. It produces food for people, feed for stock (animals) and some products for technical (industrial) use. In general we can divide agriculture into two parts: growing and breeding.

 

A FARM

 

A farm is usually an area of land, or separate parcels of land combined as an operational unit, used for the production of crops and/or animals.

A farm may be owned or rented. In the Czech Republic we have, in principle, two types of farms: private individual and corporate farms.

Private individual farms are usually family farms operated by the members of the family living on it with little or no hired labour. Such a farm is an economic unit which includes a household, a farmhouse, farm buildings and a farmyard.

Corporate farms in the Czech Republic are mostly cooperative farms, companies with limited liability, or joint stock companies. A corporate farm is owned and operated by a corporation which, however, may be made up by the same family.

There are several definitions of farms. The European Union, for instance, says that a farm may be any household which meets at least one of the following criteria:

1.       cultivates more than 0.5 ha of farmland,

2.       has more than 1,500 msq of intensive crops (vegetables, fruits),

3.       has more than 500 msq of vineyard,

4.       raises 100 fur animals,

5.       one head of cattle, 4 sheep or goats, 2 pigs, 100 rabbits, 5 colonies of bees, 50 poultry birds.

 

LAND

 

Land is one of the three most important agents utilised in agriculture. The remaining two are capital and labour.

Land can be used in many ways. There is, for instance, arable land, permanent meadow, pasture, orchard, garden, or woodland. There is also fallow land and set aside. Following below is a brief description, certainly not a definition.

1.    Arable land is suitable for the cultivation of a variety of crops.

2.    A permanent meadow is a piece of land producing a regular crop of grass for several years without ploughing or reseeding.

3.    A pasture is a piece of grassland, fenced or unfenced, on which farm animals feed by grazing.

4.    An orchard is an area of various fruit trees. A garden is a plot of land, usually less than an acre, used for the growing of vegetables, flowers, herbs, etc. and usually adjacent to the farmhouse.

5.    Woodland is any area whose vegetation is composed mainly of woody plants, nowadays often called energy crops.

6.    Fallow land is cultivated land which may be kept free of vegetation by ploughing, disking, etc. in order to destroy weeds or to conserve a supply of moisture for a succeeding crop.

7.    Set aside (land) is an area of farmland which is not used for the cultivation of crops for human consumption but for which a farmer receives a compensation from his government.

Farmers often manure the soil with natural manure or with artificial fertilisers to make the soil better.

 

PLANTS AND CROPS (GROWING CROPS)

 

A large number of different types of plants are cultivated worldwide. Bacteria are important in milk processing, yeasts are used in the fermentation industry and in baking, many fungi namely the common mushroom are grown for food, and forest trees are the source of timber.

A plant is an individual biological phenomenon, an organism distinguished from animals in that it takes nutrients in liquid solution rather that in solid form. A crop from the farmer’s point of view, is a product of harvest obtained by labour, as distinguished from natural production or wild growth.

Farm crops are economic crops, such as grains or cereals, oil crops, pulses, roots and tubers, fodder crops, or technical and fibre crops. Among the farm crops also belong vegetables and fruits, and we also understand energy crops as now belonging to important farm crops.

Grains - wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize (corn) and rice. Wheat, rye and rice are used mostly as a food for people, barley, oats and corn as a feed for stock. Barley is an important raw material for beer production.

Root (row) crops include sugar beet, fodder beet, turnips and potatoes.

Pulse crops - peas, beans and lentils belong here. Pulse crops are cultivated for food but mainly for the seed.

Forage crops are various plants used as green forage, hay, or silage. Important forage crops are lucerne (alfalfa), clover, grasses and their mixtures.

Oil crops consist of oilseed rape, mustard and poppy seed.

Flax, hemp, rapeseed and one part of potatoes are grown up for industrial use. Fibre crops are e.g. flax and hemp.

Some agricultural enterprises are specialised in field crops, other ones produce vegetables (sometimes in greenhouses) and fruit in orchards. Tomatoes, cucumbers, cauliflower, pepper, onion, garlic, carrot, parsley, celery, peas, beans, spinach, pumpkins, white and red cabbage, lettuce, leek, radishes etc. are grown up in our climate zone. Fruit trees in our orchards yield various kinds of fruit: apples, pears, cherries, plums, and apricots. Small fruit includes strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries and currants. Grapes are grown up in the winegrowing areas in the warm rolling regions, e.g. in Southern Moravia. We know also tropical kinds of fruit - lemons, oranges, bananas, tangerines, peaches, pineapples, melons, grapefruits, kiwis, etc.

For its growth, the plant requires sufficient light, water and carbon dioxide. By means of photosynthesis the plant must produce enough carbohydrate and provide energy for chemical reaction within its cells.

In addition to these factors, the plant must obtain an adequate amount of soluble salts containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, magnesium, sulphur and sodium. The plant also requires minute quantities of certain elements known as trace elements. These include manganese, zinc, copper and boron. These elements are supplied to the plants through natural or man-made (artificial) fertilizers.

 

FARM ANIMALS (BREEDING ANIMALS)

 

Farm animals are any of the domestic animals which are commonly associated with farming. Among the main groups of farm animals are cattle, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, horses, rabbits, and several others.

Cattle are kept for milk and meat. In the earlier days they were also used as draught animals. Nowadays, in the more advanced economies, most cattle breeds are classified as either dairy or beef. Some animal scientists classify only mature bovine animals as cattle, while calves and yearlings are sometimes excluded. Heifers are young females that have not had a calf yet.

The pig is not a ruminant and therefore it cannot deal efficiently with fibre. Long in the past, when man still lived in caves, the pig and the dog were competitors for food, unlike the sheep and the goat which were able to live on grass and leaves. Pigs are bred for food – they give us pork, lard and bacon.

Sheep have been used by man for thousands of years for their wool and meat. In the Czech Republic sheep do not belong among the most important farm animals, but they are valued in some regions, namely in the hills and in the highlands, where they are an important factor of countryside management.

Poultry are domesticated fowls that are raised primarily for their meat, eggs or feathers, such as chicken, turkeys, ducks and geese. Chickens provide nearly all the eggs and poultry meat that we eat, and they are sometimes classified as laying, table, dual-purpose and fancy breeds.

Horses are animals of very ancient domestication used as beasts of burden, draft animals, and as pleasure animals for riding.

Rabbits are typically meat (and fur) animals although recently they have been increasingly used by city people as pets.

Beef, pork, mutton, lamb and veal form the group of "red" meat. "White" meat - poultry - is much healthier. Poultry include domestic fowls (hens, chickens), geese, ducks and turkeys.

 

FARM MACHINERY

 

Farm machinery includes all machines and implements used on the farm. Such are, for instance, ploughs, cultivators, harrows, seeders, sprayers, harvesters, loaders, milking machines, but also lorries (trucks), trailers – and even the farm share of the family car counts in the gross margin calculations. The tractor is a vehicle usually with a diesel-type engine, 2WD or FWD or a crawler, which is used to supply power to other machines in one of the five ways:

a) pulling at the drawbar,

b) belt power from the belt pulley

c) rotary power from the power take-off shaft

d) hydraulic power for the operation of hydraulic cylinders or other mechanisms

e) electric power when a generator is mounted on the tractor.

The drawbar pulls trailers and implements, e.g. cultivators, planters or harvesters. The rear power take-off drives implements, such as seeders and sprayers. The hydraulic system uses hydraulic pumps to raise and lower implements, control the plough depth and similar operations. The plough is an implement of various types used to cut, break or turn a soil layer in preparation for seeding, planting or other agricultural practices. The cultivator is a farm implement used to break the soil surface so as to remove the weeds and to stir the soil. Harrows have a similar function and, in addition, they level the ground and prepare the topsoil for seeding (sowing). Sprayers apply chemicals, namely fungicides, herbicides and insecticides to the crop stands. Many implements, such as mowers, small harvesters, potato diggers or loaders were formerly driven through their land wheels but now they are driven from the tractor power take-off.

The equipment for a one-tractor family farm usually includes one or two ploughs, a cultivator, a set of light and heavy harrows and possibly disc harrows, a roller, a seed drill, a fertilizer drill, a grass mower, a tool bar with crop attachments and at least one trailer. The farming system, the organization and management and the situation of the farm are decisive for how many hectares should provide a full year’s work for any given machine, or whether contractor’s services should be ordered.

In the garden we usually use a spade, a fork, a hoe, a rake, a wheelbarrow, a watering can, a lawn sparkler, a sickle, a scythe, a lawn mower (mowing machine), etc.

 

LABOUR

 

Farm labour is either the sum of work done in the operation of a farm, or it means those people who work on farms as hired hands. Such labourers can be general farm workers, foremen, dairy cowmen, other stockmen, tractor drivers, and a variety of other workers, such as regular, seasonal, local, migratory, full-time or part-time.

The unit used in calculating farm labour is the man day (usually 8 hours). There is, of course, a considerable difference between one farm to another. The labour expended on tillage will vary with soil type, size and shape of fields, the average distance from the field to the farm premises, and even with the quality of farm roads. Labour expenditure per hectare of harvesting or hay making will vary wit weather conditions and the size of crops. In the case of live stock there is a difference between different systems – e.g. deep litter as compared with free range poultry keeping, or with industrial cage-system egg production. Or the yard and parlour system compared with the cowshed system of dairying.

A variable factor which affects the number of regular staff, is the extent to which a farmer may depend upon contractors. In areas where contract services are available in may be profitable to use such services, especially for operations that require special machinery or exceptionally high powered tractors – deep ploughing and cultivating, combine harvesting of grains, weed spraying or even potato harvesting.

 

ORGANIC FARMING

 

Organic farming is a system of farming in which strong emphasis is placed on the use of organic materials: plant and animal manure and composts, to maintain fertility and productivity of soil. The use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, etc. is avoided or minimized.

The following points should be noted:

a.    comparative results, especially as regards yields and prices relative to those on conventional farms, are non-existent,

b.    such results as do exist are inevitably extremely variable,

c.    all crops and livestock can be organically produced,

d.    the area of organic farming in the CR is still very small but expanding.

The benefits to the nation are clear:

a.          lower yields = less surpluses = less national and EU expenditure on storage and disposal,

b.          environmental benefits of non-use of chemicals,

c.          reduction in use of fossil energy,

d.          increasing concern over health means a rising demand and thus an expanding market.

The economics to the farmer depend primarily upon:

- relative yields compared with conventional farming,

- the price premium compared with conventional farming.

However, thee are also the wider whole-farm effects to be considered, e.g. unless the farm already has a substantial percentage of its area down to leys this will probably have to be increased in order to maintain yields, and this extra grass has to be utilised profitably – which is far from easy, and the extra capital requirements could be heavy.

Furthermore, there is conversion period to undergo before full price premiums can be claimed. Also quality, in sense of appearance, can be badly affected by pests and diseases.

 

 

THE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRENEUR IN 2010

 

The farmer of 2010 – as seen by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture in 2000 – is a self-aware agricultural businessman or businesswoman. He or she manages an enterprise strongly anchored in a production chain, and is aware of the impact of the enterprise on the physical environment.

The farmer makes a conscious choice about which parts of the production process to carry out, which parts to leave to other links in the chain and which parties in the chain match his or her skills and enterpreneurial mentality. Thus one will choose a broad business set-up focused on several high value products which have a short chain to the consumer or are sold directly by the farmer himself. Another will devote efforts to producing a high-quality raw material for a specific export market, as part of a strong processing and marketing chain. Yet another sees opportunities for broadening his income base by maintaining nature and landscape for water boards or nature management organisations.

In short, the agricultural entrepreneur is continually keeping track of the product and what is done to it further along the chain. Furthermore, he continually wants to know the origin of the means of production and if its quality is impeccable. Last but not least, he or she is a professional in management, and it necessary will hire third parties for their particular expertise.

The farmer is focused on innovation and the continuity of the business. One feature of agricultural business is that the production process is transparent. The enterpreneur shows customers and the public the production methods used and takes responsibility for them.

Agriculture in the future requires innovative enterpreneurs and companies with motivated employees. Enterpreneurs who are able to develop new product-market combinations at competitive cost prices. Enterpreneurs who work together in chains from the farmer to the retailer, who are well educated and keep abreast of developments in the international market and society.

 

AGRICULTURE AND GOLF

 

Can golf have anything to do with agriculture? It certainly can, nowadays golf or rather golf course management is one of the possible forms of modern alternative or diversified (multifunctional) farming.

Golf is said to be the fastest growing sport in the world and many golf courses are under construction in many parts even in the Czech Republic. What are the most important requirements for building a golf course? The location should not be too far from a centre of substantial population, it should be at a good distance from other similar courses, it should have good road access, and it should be an attractive, free-draining site.

 

What are the options for the farmer?

1.     To sell land with planning permission. The land could have a multiple of its agricultural value.

2.     To let the land to a developer for which purpose a long lease is required. Such rental in the European Union, for instance, is many times the agricultural value, with annual reviews.

3.     To form a joint company with a developer. This obviously means the farmer shares the success, or loss. The land would remain all or part of the farmer’s property. A well-constructed agreement is essential in this case.

4.     To develop the course and let it to an operator. In this case the farmer needs a golf architect. However, such an approach is not recommended as the return on the land value and investment is too low.

5.     To develop and operate the course oneself. This is not recommended, too, unless the farmer has good knowledge of golf and exceptional management skills.

 

An 18-hole course requires between 40 and 60 ha, and it takes between one and two years to construct. A nine-hole par 3 course needs only 4 to 6 ha. A golf course is, however, a long-term investment with capital growth potential but bearing a pretty high-risk element.

 

 

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AGRICULTURE IN …

 

GREAT BRITAIN

Although only 2.2 per cent of the working population are engaged in agriculture and fishing, they feed nearly two-thirds of Britain’s inhabitants. 30 per cent of land is arable and the main agricultural products are grains (wheat, barley), sugar beet, potatoes, fruit and vegetable. World known British cattle, sheep and poultry breeding earn Iots of money.

 

THE USA

Nearly half of the country is a farmland, however only 21 per cent is arable. The main agricultural products are corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, tobacco, fruit, vegetables and cattle breeding. The U.S.A. is the biggest supplier of grains (wheat, corn, oats), dairy products, meat, vegetable oils and soybeans in spite of the fact that less than 3 per cent of population are involved in agriculture.

 

CANADA

Canada’s economy is traditionally based on natural resources and agriculture. Almost half the Iand area of Canada is covered by forests. Although only 7 per cent of the land is suitable for farming, agriculture is the world’s fifth Iargest producer of wheat after former USSR, the USA, China and India and the second Iargest wheat exporter after the USA. 80 per cent of Canada’s farmland is in the prairies. Other important agricultural items are Iive-stock production, oats, vegetables, fruit, tobacco, dairy products and leather.

 

AUSTRALIA

Australia belongs to the top exporters of beef, Iamb, wool and wheat, although only 9 per cent of land is arable. Other agricultural items are barley, oats, hay, sugar, wine, fruit and vegetables. Only 7 per cent of the population work in agriculture.

 

NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand’s prosperity is founded on dairy farming. The pleasant climate aIlows cattle and sheep to stay outside even in winter. Grass grows faster in New Zealand than in most countries and is called the green gold there. Only 2 per cents of land are arable and other main crops are grains. Above 10 per cent people work in agriculture.

 

THE CZECH REPUBLIC

The Czech agriculture is concentrated to traditional crops of the temperate zone and grains (mainly wheat and barley) predominate. Fodder grains, sugar beet and potatoes are important too. Hops is the special and famous product of the Czech agriculture; it is used for beer. Vegetables are grown up on only 1% of arable land.

Animal production is focused on breeding of cattle, pigs and poultry. The freshwater fish especially the carp production is a traditional part of animal production in our republic. Small size breedings of rabbits and bee-keeping are very popular and spread here. Many village people breed pigs, poultry and rabbits for their personal use. Many families have their own small vegetable and fruit gardens where they grow up fresh vegetables, fruit and flowers.

 

  

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VOCABULARY

 

A FARM

 

FARM (fa:m)

statek, hospodářství, farma,

 

zemědělský podnik

FAMILY FARM (fæmili fa:m)

rodinná farma

PRIVATE FARM (praivәt fa:m)

soukromá farma

FARM HOUSE (fa:m haus)

obydlí na statku

FARM BUILDING (fa:m bildiŋ)

hospodářská budova

FARM YARD (fa:m ja:d)

statkový dvůr

HOUSEHOLD (hauzhәuld)

domácnost

HEDGE (hedž)

živý plot

FENCE (fens)

plot

 

LAND

 

LAND (lænd)

půda, v zemědělství měřitelná (ha)

- ARABLE LAND (ærәbl lænd)

orná půda

- BARREN LAND (bæren lænd)

neúrodná půda

- FARMLAND (fa:mlænd)

zemědělská půda

- GRASSLAND (gra:slænd)

zatravněná plocha

- FALLOW (falәu)

úhor

- SET ASIDE LAND (set әsaid)

půda uvedená do klidu

- WOODLAND (wudlænd)

zalesněná plocha

AREA (aәriә)

plocha, výměra

ACRE (eikә)

akr (0,4 ha)

CROP STAND (krop stænd)

porost (plodiny)

MSQ (SQUARE METRE)

čtvereční metr

 

 

BED (bed)

záhon

FURROW

brázda

FIELD (fi:ld)

pole

GARDEN (ga:dn)

zahrada

GROUND (graund)

zem, dno, základ

MEADOW (mædou)

louka

ORCHARD (‘o:čәd)

sad

PASTURE (pasčә)

pastvina

PARCEL (pa:sl)

parcela, pozemek

SOIL (soil)

půda (jako hmota)

- SOIL LAYER (soil ‘leiә)

půdní vrstva

- SOIL FERTILITY (soil fә:’tility)

půdní úrodnost

- SOIL PRODUCTIVITY (soil prodak’tivity)

dní produktivita

TOPSOIL (‘topsoil)

ornice

VINEYARD (viniәd)

vinice, vinohrad

WORKABLE SOIL (wә:kәbl soil)

obdělávatelná půda

 

FIELD CROPS

 

BARLEY (‘ba:li)

ječmen

- FEEDING BARLEY

krmný ječmen

- MALTING BARLEY

sladovnický ječmen

BEET (bi:t)

řepa

- SUGAR BEET

cukrová řepa

- FODER BEET

krmná řepa

CELL (sel)

buňka

CHIKORY (čikәri)

čekanka

CLOVER ('klәuvә)

jetel

CROP (krop)

plodina, úroda

- ENERGY CROP (enәdži krop)

energetická plodina

- FIBRE CROP (‘faibә krop)

přadná plodina

- FIELD CROP (fi:ld krop)

polní, zemědělská plodina

- FODDER CROP (‘fodә krop)

krmná plodina

- FORAGE CROP (‘foridž krop)

pícnina

- GRAIN CROP (grein krop)

obilnina, zrnina

- INTENSIVE CROP (in’tensiv krop)

intenzivní plodina

- OIL CROP (oil krop)

olejnina

- PULSE CROP (pals krop)

luštěnina

- ROOT CROP (ru:t krop)

okopanina

- ROW CROP (rәu krop)

řádková plodina, okopanina

- SUCCEEDING CROP

následná plodina

- TECHNICAL CROP (‘teknikәl krop)

technická plodina

CROP ROTATION

osevní postup

FEED, FEEDING STAFF (fi:d, fi:diŋ staf)

krmivo, krmení

FLAX (flæks)

len

FODDER (fodә)

píce, krmní

FORAGE ('foridž)

píce, pícnina

GRAIN (grein)

zrno, zrní, obilí, obilovina

- BREAD GRAIN (bræd grein)

chlebovina

- SMALL GRAIN (smo:I grein)

drobné zrniny

GRASS (gra:s)

tráva

HAY (hei)

seno

HEMP (hem)

konopí

HERB (hәb)

bylina

HOPS (hops)

chmel

LENTILS (Ientilz)

čočka

LUCERNE (Iu:'sә:n)

vojtěška

MAIZE (meiz)

kukuřice

MILLET (milit)

proso

MIXTURE ('miksčә)

směs

MUSTARD

hořčice

OATS (әuts)

oves

PLANT (plænt)

rostlina

PLANT GROWTH (pla:nt grouӨ)

růst rostlin

POPPY, POPPYSEED (popi)

mák

POTATOES (pә'teitәus)

brambory

- EARLY POTATOES

rané brambory

- WARE POTATOES

konzumní, pozdní brambory

 

(na uskladnění)

RICE (rais)

rýže

ROOT (ru:t)

kořen

ROOTS AND TUBERS

okopaniny (kořeny a hlízy)

RYE (rai)

žito

SEED (si:d)

semeno

SILAGE (sailidž)

siláž

STRAW (stro:)

sláma

TOBACCO

tabák

TUBER (‘tju:bә)

hlíza

TURNIP ('tә:nip)

řepa

VEGETATION (vedžiteišәn)

vegetace

WEED (wi:d)

plevel

WHEAT (wi:t)

pšenice

- BREAD WHEAT

potravinářská pšenice

- MILLING WHEAT

potravinářská pšenice

- ALIMENTARY WHEAT

potravinářská pšenice

- FEEDING WHEAT

krmná pšenice

WOODY PLANT (wudy pla:nt)

dřevina

 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

 

APPLE (‘æpl)

jablko

APRICOT ('eiprikot)

meruňka

BEAN (bi:n)

fazole

CABBAGE ('kæbidž)

zelí

CARROT (‘kærәt)

mrkev

CAULIFLOWER ('koliflauә)

květák

CELERY(selәri)

celer

CHERRY (čeri)

třešně

CUCUMBER ('kju:kәmbә)

okurka

CURRANTS ('karәnts)

rybíz

FRUIT (fru:t)

ovoce

FRUIT GROWING (fru:t grәuviŋ)

pěstování ovoce, ovocnářství

GARDENING ('ga:dniŋ)

zahradnictví, zelinářství

GARLIC ('ga:lik)

česnek

GOOSBERRY ('gu:sberi)

angrešt

GRAPES (greips)

hroznové víno (hrozny)

LEEK (li:k)

pórek

LETTUCE (letis)

hlávkový salát

MORELLO (mә’relәu)

višně

ONION ('anjәn)

cibule

PAPRIKA (pæprikә)

paprika

PARSLEY (pa:sli)

petržel

PEACH (pi:č)

broskev

PEAR (peә)

hruška

PEAS (pi:z)

hrách

PLUM (plam)

švestka

RADISH ('rædiš)

ředkvička

RASPBERRY ('ra:zbәri)

malina

SPINACH ('spinidž)

špenát

STRAWBERRY ('stro:bәri)

jahoda

TOMATO (tәma:tәu)

rajče

VINE (vain)

réva (vinná, chmel)

WINE (wain)

víno (nápoj)

 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

 

ANIMAL (ænimәl)

zvíře

- DRAUGHT ANIMAL (dra:ft ‘ænimәl)

tažné zvíře

- FARM ANIMAL (fa:m ænimәl)

hospodářské zvíře

- FUR ANIMAL (fә’ ænimәl)

kožešinové zvíře

- PLEASURE ANIMAL (pležә ‘ænimәl)

zvíře pro potěšení

BEE (bi:)

včela

BEEKEEPING (biki:piŋ)

včelařství

BEE COLONY

včelstvo

BREEDING (bri:diŋ)

šlechtění, plemenitba, chov

BREED (bri:d)

plemeno, chov

- FANCY BREED

šlechtěné plemeno

BIRD (bә’d)

kus drůbeže, pták

CATTLE (kætI)

skot

- BULL

býk

- BREEDING BULL

chovný býk

- COW

kráva

- CALF, CALVES (‘ka:f)

tele

- DAIRY CATTLE

mléčný skot

- BEEF CATTLE

jatečný skot

- FATTENING CATTLE

skot na výkrm

- SLAUGHTER CATTLE

jatečný skot

- SUCKLER COW

kráva bez tržní produkce mléka

- HEAD OF CATTLE (hed әv cætl)

kus skotu (používá se v jednotném čísle –

 

5 head of cattle)

- HEIFER (‘hefә)

jalovice

- MATURE BOVINE (mә’tjuә ‘bouvain)

dospělý hovězí skot

- OX

vůl

- YEARLING (jә:liŋ)

roček, roční skot

DOMESTIC (dә’mestik)

domácí, domestikovaný

DOMESTICATE (dә’mestikeit)

domestikovat

DOMESTIC FOWL (dә'mestik faul)

domácí ptactvo, kur, slepice

FEATHER (‘fәӨә)

peří

FEMALE (‘fi:meil)

samice

FOWL (faul)

pták, ptactvo, drůbež (laicky)

GOAT (gәut)

koza

HORSE

kůň

- BEAST OF BURDEN (bi:st әv ‘bә:dn)

soumar

LARD (la:d)

sádlo

LEAF, LEAVES (li:f, li:vz)

list, listy

MALE (meil)

samec

MILK PROCESSING (‘milk prә’sesiŋ)

zpracování mléka

PIG (pig)

prase

- SOW

prasnice

- BOAR

kanec

- PIGLET

sele

- WEANER

odstávče

- SLAUGHTER PIGS

jatečná zvířata

POULTRY (poultri)

drůbež

- BROILER

brojler

- CHICKEN

kuře, slepice

- HEN

slepice

- LAYING CHICKEN (leiŋ ‘čikin)

nosnice

- LAYER

nosnice

- COCK

kohout

- COCKEREL

mladý kohoutek

- ROOSTER

kohout (am.)

- DUCK (dak)

kachna

- DRAKE

kačer

- DUCKLING

kachně

- GOOSE (gu:s), mn.č. GEESE (gi:s)

husa

- GANDER

houser

- GOSLING

house

- TURKEY (tә:ki)

krocan

- TURKEY HEN

krůta

- PHEASANT

bažant

- TABLE POULTRY (‘teibl ‘poultri)

“masná” drůbež

- SLAUGHTER CHICKENS

jatečná drůbež

RABBIT ('ræ:bit)

králík

RUMINANT (‘ru:minәnt)

přežvýkavec

SHEEP (ši:p)

ovce

- EWE

bahnice

- RAM

beran

- LAMB

jehně

WOOL (wuI)

vlna

YIELD (ji:Id)

vynášet, poskytovat, dávat, výnos

 

KINDS OF MEAT

 

BEEF (bi:f)

hovězí maso

CHICKEN (čikin)

kuřecí maso

LAMB (læm)

jehněčí maso

MUTTON (matn)

skopové maso

PORK (po:k)

vepřové maso

VEAL (vi:I)

telecí maso

 

FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

zemědělské strojírenství

FARM MACHINES

zemědělské stroje

BEETLIFTER (bi:t liftә)

vyorávač řepy

BELT (belt)

pás, řemen

COMBINE HARVESTER ('kombain ha:'vistә)

sklízecí mlátička

CRAWLER (kro:lә)

pásový traktor

CROP ATTACHMENT (krop ә’tæčmәnt)

přídavné zařízení

DIESEL ENGINE (‘di:zә ‘endžin)

naftový motor

DIGGER (‘digә)

vyorávač

- POTATO DIGGER (pә'teitәu digә)

vyorávač brambor

DRAWBAR (dro:ba:)

tažný hák, tyč

DRIVE (draiv)

pohon

DRIVEN (‘drivn)

poháněný

FORK (fo:k)

vidle

HARROW(S) (‘hærou)

brány

HARVESTER (‘ha:vistә)

sklízeč

HOE (hou)

motyka

HOP-PICKING MACHINE

česačka chmele

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER (hai’dro:lik ‘silindә)

hydraulický válec

LAND WHEEL (lænd wi:l)

záhonové kolo

LAWN MOVER ('Io:n moәu)

sekačka na trávu

LAWN SPRINKLER ('Io:n spriŋklә)

kropič trávníků

LOADER (loudә)

nakladač

LORRY (am. TRUCK) (‘lori, ‘trak)

nákladní auto

MILKING MACHINE (milkiŋ mә’ši:n)

dojící stroj

MOWER (mouә)

žací stroj

PARLOUR

dojírna

PLANTER (pla:ntә)

sazeč

PLOUGH (plau)

pluh

POWER (‘pauә)

energie, síla

POWER TAKE-OFF (pauә ‚teik o:f)

vývodový hřídel

PULLEY (‘puli)

kladka, řemenice

RAKE (reik)

hrábě

ROLLER (roulә)

válec

ROTARY POWER (‘routәri ‘pauә)

točivá energie, síla

SCYTHE (said)

kosa

SICKLE (sikl)

srp

SOWING MACHINE (so:wiŋ ‘mæši:n)

secí stroj, sečka

SEEDER, SEED DRILL (si:dә, si:d ‘dril)

secí stroj

SHAFT (ša:ft)

hřídel

SPADE (speid)

rýč

SPRAYER (spreiә)

postřikovač

TOOL BAR (tu: ba:)

nosič nářadí

TRACTOR ('træktә)

traktor

TRAILER ( 'treilә)

návěs, vlek

VEHICLE (‘vi:ikl)

vozidlo

WATERING CAN (wo:tәriŋ kæn)

kropící konev

WHEELBARROW (wi:lbærou)

trakař

2WD – two wheel drive

náhon na dvě kola

DISKING (diskiŋ)

podmítka

 

ORGANIZATION, ECONOMICS

 

AGENT (eidžәnt)

činitel

COMPARATIVE (kәm’pærәtiv)

poměrný, srovnatelný

COMPENSATION (kompәn’seišn)

náhrada

CORPORATION

korporace, společnost

CORPORATE FARM (ko:pәrәt fa:m)

společné hospodářství

COOPERATIVE (kәu’opәrәtiv)

družstvo, družstevní

DEVELOP (di’velәp)

vyvíjet, realizovat

DEVELOPER (di’velәpә)

realizátor (projektu)

DEMAND (di’ma:nd)

poptávka

ECONOMY (i:’konәmi)

hospodářství

ECONOMICS (i:’konomiks)

ekonomiky

ECONOMIC (i:’kәnomik)

ekonomický

ECONOMICAL (i:’kәnomikl)

hospodárný

ENTERPRENEUR (‘entәprә’nә)

podnikatel

ENTERPRISE (‘entәprais)

podnik, podnikání

EXPANDING MARKET (iks’pændiŋ ‘ma:kit)

expandující trh

GOLF COURSE (golf ko:s)

golfové hřiště

HIRED LABOUR (haiәd leibә)

najatá pracovní síla

INCOME BASE (‘inkәm beis)

základ příjmu

JOINT STOCK COMPANY

akciová společnost

LEASE (li:s)

pronajmout, pronájem

LET (let)

pronajmout

LIMITED LIABILITY (limitid)

omezené ručení

ECONOMIC UNIT (ikә’nomik junit)

hospodářská jednotka

MEANS OF PRODUCTION (mi:nz әv prә’dakšәn)

výrobní prostředek

OPERATIONAL UNIT (opә’reišәnl junit)

provozní jednotka

OPERATOR (‘opәreitә)

provozovatel

PLANNING PERMISSION

stavební povolení

PRICE PREMIUM (prais ‘pri:mjәm)

cenová prémie, zvýhodnění

PROCESSING CHAIN (‘prousesiŋ čein)

zpracovatelský řetězec

PRODUCTION CHAIN (prә’dakšәn čein)

výrobní řetězec

PROFITABLE (‘profitәbl)

výnosný

RETAIL (‘ri:teil)

maloobchod

RETURN ON (ri’tә:n on)

návratnost, návrat

REVIEW (ri’vju:)

revize, úprava

RENT, RENTAL (rent, ‘rentl)

nájem

SELF-AWARE (‘self әweә)

sebevědomý

SITE (sait)

místo, poloha

WATER BOARD (‘wo:tә bo:d)

vodárenská správa

YIELD (ji:ld)

výnos, užitkovost

 

PLANT NUTRITION

 

BORON (‘bo:ron)

bór

CALCIUM (‘kælsjәm)

vápník

CARBON DIOXIDE (‘ka:bәn dai’oksaid)

oxid uhličitý

CARBOHYDRATE (‘ka:bou ‘haidrәt)

uhlohydrát

COPPER ('kopә)

měď

FERTILIZER ('fә:tilaizә)

hnojivo

- MAN-MADE FERTILIZER (mæn meid ..)

umělé hnojivo

- NATURAL FERTILIZER ('næčrl)

statkové hnojivo

IRON (aiәn)

železo

LIQUID SOLUTION (likwid sә’lju:šn)

roztok

MAGNESIUM (mæg’ni:zjәm)

hořčík

MANGANESE (mangәni:z)

mangan

MANURE (mә’njuә)

hnůj (statkový)

- MADE MANURE

vyzrálý hnůj

- DUNG (daŋ)

chlévská mrva, trus

- DUNG-WATER

močůvka

- EXCREMENTS

výkaly

- MUCK

mrva

- SEWAGE

kejda

NITROGEN (naitridžәn)

dusík

NUTRIENT (nju:triәnt)

živina

PHOSPHORUS (‚fosfәrәs)

fosfor

PHOTOSYNTHESIS (‚foutosinӨisis)

fotosyntéza

POTASSIUM (pә’tæsjәm)

draslík

SODIUM (soudjәm)

sodík

SOLID FORM (solid fo:m)

pevná forma

SOLUBLE SALT (‘soljubl so:t)

rozpustná sůl

SULPHUR (salfә)

síra

TRACE ELEMENT (treis eli’ment)

stopový prvek

 

VERBS

 

BREED-BRED-BRED (bri:d-bred-bred)

šlechtit, chovat, vychovávat, chov

CONSERVE (konsә’v)

zachovat, chránit

CONTROL

ovládat, kontrolovat

CULTIVATE (kaltiveit)

pěstovat, obdělávat

DIG

kopat, okopávat

DEAL WITH

zabývat se, potýkat se

EXCLUDE

vyloučit

GRAZE (greiz)

pást (se)

GROW-GREW-GROWN (grәu-gru:-grәun)

pěstovat

LEVEL

rovnat (do roviny)

LOWER

snižovat, spouštět

MANURE (mә'njuә)

hnojivo, hnojit

OWN (cun)

vlastnit

PLOUGH (plau)

orat

PULL

tahat

RAISE (reiz)

chovat zvířata, zvedat, zvyšovat

RENT (rent)

pronajmout

SEED (si:d)

sít, osivo, semeno

STIR

míchat, mísit

SUCCEED (sәksi:d)

následovat

VALUE

cenit si

 

PHRASES

 

- How much land do you farm?

- How much arable?

- Have you any woodland?

- Do you have set aside?

- How much do you get per hectare in compensation?

- What can you grow on set aside?

 

 

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PICTURE DICTIONARY

Farming Garden Garden tools

 
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